|First Lady of the United States|
August 9, 1974 – January 20, 1977
|Preceded by||Pat Nixon|
|Succeeded by||Rosalynn Carter|
|Second Lady of the United States|
December 6, 1973 – August 9, 1974
|Vice President||Gerald Ford|
|Preceded by||Judy Agnew|
|Succeeded by||Happy Rockefeller|
|1st Chairwoman of the Betty Ford Center|
October 4, 1982 – January 25, 2005
|Preceded by||Position established|
|Succeeded by||Susan Ford Bales|
Elizabeth Anne Bloomer
April 8, 1918
Chicago, Illinois, U.S.
|Died||July 8, 2011 (aged 93)|
Rancho Mirage, California, U.S.
|Resting place||Gerald R. Ford Presidential Museum|
Elizabeth Anne Ford (née Bloomer; formerly Warren; April 8, 1918 – July 8, 2011) was the first lady of the United States from 1974 to 1977, as the wife of President Gerald Ford. As first lady, she was active in social policy and set a precedent as a politically active presidential spouse. Ford also was the second lady of the United States from 1973 to 1974 when her husband was vice president.
Throughout her husband's time in the office of the presidency, she maintained high approval ratings and was considered to be an influential first lady. Ford was noted for raising breast cancer awareness following her 1974 mastectomy. In addition, she was a passionate supporter of the Equal Rights Amendment (ERA). As a supporter of abortion rights and a leader in the women's rights movement, she gained fame as one of the most candid first ladies in history, commenting on the hot-button issues of the time, such as feminism, equal pay, the Equal Rights Amendment, sex, drugs, and abortion. Surveys of historians conducted by the Siena College Research Institute have shown that historians regard Ford to be among the best and most courageous American first ladies.
Following her White House years, she continued to lobby for the ERA and remained active in the feminist movement. Soon after leaving office, she raised awareness of addiction when she sought help for and publicly disclosed her long-running struggle with alcoholism and substance abuse. After recovering, she founded and served as the first chair of the board of directors of the Betty Ford Center, which provides treatment services for women those suffering substance abuse and addiction. Ford also became involved in causes related to HIV/AIDS. For years after leaving the White House, Ford continued to enjoy great influence and popularity, continuing to rank in the top ten of Gallup's annual most admired woman poll every year through 1991.
Early life and career
Ford was born Elizabeth Anne Bloomer in 1918 in Chicago, Illinois, the third child and only daughter of Hortense (née Neahr; 1884 – 1948) and William Stephenson Bloomer Sr. (1874–1934), who was a traveling salesman for Royal Rubber Co. She was called Betty as a child.
Hortense and William married on November 9, 1904, in Chicago. Betty's two older brothers were Robert (d. 1971) and William Jr. After the family lived briefly in Denver, Colorado, she grew up in Grand Rapids, Michigan, where she graduated from Central High School.
In 1926, when she was eight years old, her mother, who valued social graces, enrolled her in the Calla Travis Dance Studio in Grand Rapids, where Ford was taught ballet, tap dancing, and modern movement. Dance developed into a passion for her, and she decided she wanted to seek a career in it. At the age of 14, she began modeling clothes and teaching children popular dances, such as the foxtrot, waltz, and big apple, to earn money in the wake of the Great Depression. She worked with children with disabilities at the Mary Free Bed Home for Crippled Children. She studied dance at the Calla Travis Dance Studio, graduating in 1935. While she was still in high school, she started her own dance school, instructing both youth and adults.
Growing up, she was subject to teasing about her surname, with other kids in school calling her "Betty Pants" (a play on "bloomers" being a name for a type of lower-body garment). Bloomer disliked the surname.
When Ford herself began the process of recovering from her own alcoholism, she disclosed to the public that both her father and her brother Bob had suffered from alcoholism as well.
When Bloomer was 16, her father died of carbon monoxide poisoning in the family's garage while working under their car, despite the garage doors being open. He died the day before his 60th birthday. It was never confirmed whether his death had been accidental or a suicide. With her father's passing, her family lost its primary breadwinner, and her mother began working as a real estate agent to support the family. Her mother's actions in the wake of her father's passing are said to have been formative for her views in support of equal pay and gender equality.
In 1936, after graduating from high school, Bloomer proposed continuing her study of dance in New York City, but her mother refused on account of the relatively recent loss of her husband. She instead attended the Bennington School of Dance in Bennington, Vermont, for two summers, where she studied under director Martha Hill with choreographers Martha Graham and Hanya Holm. After being accepted by Graham as a student in 1940, Bloomer moved to New York to live in Manhattan's Chelsea neighborhood; she worked as a fashion model for the John Robert Powers firm in order to finance her dance studies. She joined Graham's auxiliary troupe and eventually performed with the company at Carnegie Hall in New York City.
Bloomer's mother was opposed to her pursuing a career in dance and insisted that she return home, and, as a compromise, they agreed that Bloomer would return home for six months and, if she still wanted to return to New York City at the end of that time, her mother would not protest further. Bloomer became immersed in her life in Grand Rapids and did not return to New York. Her mother remarried, to family friend and neighbor Arthur Meigs Godwin, and Bloomer lived with them. She got a job as assistant to the fashion coordinator for Herpolsheimer's, a local department store. She also organized her own dance group and taught dance at various sites in Grand Rapids, including the Calla Travis Dance Studio. She further taught ballroom dancing lessons for children with visual impairment and hearing loss and gave weekly dance lessons to African American children.
Marriage to William G. Warren
In 1942, Elizabeth Bloomer married William G. Warren, whom she had known since she was 12. At the time they married, Warren worked for his own father in insurance sales. Shortly after they married, he began to sell insurance for another company. He later worked for the Continental Can Company, and after that for the Widdicomb Furniture Company. The couple moved frequently because of his work. At one point, they lived in Toledo, Ohio, where Elizabeth was employed at the department store Lasalle & Koch as a demonstrator, a job that entailed being a model and saleswoman. She worked a production line for a frozen food company in Fulton, New York. When they returned to Grand Rapids, she worked again at Herpolsheimer's, this time as the fashion coordinator. She had, three years into the marriage, concluded that their relationship was a failure. She desired to have a family with children and was unhappy with the frequent moves between cities she had experienced in her marriage. Warren was an alcoholic and diabetic, and was in poor health. Shortly after she decided to file for divorce, Warren fell into a coma. She paused her divorce, and supported him, living at Warren's family's home for the next two years as his health recovered. During these two years, she lived upstairs while he was nursed downstairs She worked jobs in order to support both herself and Warren. This experience has been credited with further cementing Ford's understanding of gender-based income inequalities between individuals doing the same work. After he recovered, they were divorced on September 22, 1947.
Marriage to Gerald Ford and motherhood
In August 1947, she was introduced by mutual friends to Gerald Ford, a lawyer and World War II veteran who had just resumed his legal practice after returning from Navy service, and was planning to run for the United States House of Representatives. They married on October 15, 1948, at Grace Episcopal Church in Grand Rapids. Gerald Ford was in the middle of his campaign for the U.S. House of Representatives. In the first of adjustments for politics, he had asked her to delay the wedding until shortly before the primary election because, as The New York Times reported, "Jerry was running for Congress and wasn't sure how voters might feel about his marrying a divorced ex-dancer." For their honeymoon, the two briefly traveled to Ann Arbor, Michigan, where they attended a college football game between the Michigan Wolverines and the Northwestern Wildcats, before driving to Owosso, Michigan, to attend a campaign rally for Republican presidential nominee Thomas Dewey. The Fords would ultimately be married for the next 58 years, until Gerald Ford's death. An anecdote that was later reported was that, when Gerald Ford left Grand Rapids for Washington, D.C., Betty Ford's new sister-in-law Janet Ford remarked to her, "with Jerry, you'll never have to worry about other women. Your cross will be his work."
Betty and Gerald Ford had four children together: Michael Gerald Ford (born 1950), John Gardner Ford (nicknamed Jack; born 1952), Steven Meigs Ford (born 1956), and Susan Elizabeth Ford (born 1957).
The Fords lived in Washington, D.C. after his election, until the spring of 1955, when the Fords moved into a house they constructed in the D.C. suburb of Alexandria, Virginia. Gerald Ford had ambitions to rise to the rank of speaker of the house, and therefore maintained a busy travel schedule, regularly crisscrossing the United States to fundraise and campaign on behalf of other Republicans in hopes that they would, in turn, provide him with the support he'd eventually need to become speaker. This meant that Gerald Ford was away from home for roughly half the year, placing a great burden on Ford to raise their children. As a mother, Ford never spanked or hit her children, believing that there were better, more constructive ways to deal with discipline and punishment.
Ford served as a parent-teacher association member, Sunday school teacher at Immanuel Church-on-the-Hill, and a Cub Scout "den mother". She regularly drove her children around to their activities, such as her sons' Little League Baseball games and her daughter's dance classes. She was also involved in her husband's political career by fulfilling the commitments expected of congressional spouses to help elevate her husband's regard among his House colleagues. She accompanied her husband to congressional and White House events, as well as on some trips abroad, and made herself available to newspaper and magazine articles. Ford also posed for newspaper publicity photographs and was a clothing model for charity fashion shows, after a Republican had urged her to do so since they felt that Democratic Party spouses had far outnumbered Republican spouses in such publicity-generating activity. Ford also volunteered for local charitable organizations, including serving as the program director of the Alexandria Cancer Fund Drive. Ford also held active membership in groups such as the 81st Congress Club and National Federation of Republican Women.
Ford's busy life took a toll. In 1964, a pinched nerve on the left side of Ford's neck sent her to the hospital for two weeks. After her pinched nerve, she began suffering several effects, including muscle spasms, periphrasic neuropathy, numbing the left side of her neck, and arthritis on her shoulder and arm. She would be given prescription medication, including Valium. Ford would ultimately develop an addiction to prescription medication (and would ultimately confront and recover from this addiction in 1978). Ford's health problems and the stress of her husband's career (which saw him frequently away from their household) compounded, particularly after her husband's career became even more demanding after he became House minority leader in January 1965. In 1965, Ford suffered a significant nervous breakdown, erupting in severe crying that had appeared inexplicable to others. This led her to seek psychiatric assistance. Ford had weekly meetings with a psychiatrist approximately between August 1965 and April 1967. Ford received support from her family and managed to resume a busy lifestyle. However, notably, Ford had not managed to address her increasing prescription pain medication dependency, which sometimes saw her taking as many as twenty pills in a single day. Nor did she address her relationship with alcohol, which she, at the time, believed was typical consumption.
Ford accompanied her husband on a trip to mainland China in 1972. That same year, her husband brought up the possibility that he might retire from congress in 1977, which would make the 1974 United States House of Representatives election the last he would run in. This prospect elated Ford. Such talk was due to Gerald Ford, following the Republican Party's failure to win a majority in the 1972 United States House of Representatives elections, seeing it as unlikely that he would ever fulfill his ambition of becoming speaker of the House.
Second Lady of the United States (1973–1974)
Spiro Agnew resigned as vice president on October 10, 1973. Two days later, on October 12, 1973, President Richard Nixon nominated Gerald Ford to serve as vice president. Ford felt an obligation to attend her husband's testimony at his confirmation hearings. During his testimony, Gerald Ford was questioned about attending psychiatric care. After this, Betty Ford was transparent with the news media that she had received psychiatric care. She explained that, while her husband had attended two sessions with a psychiatric doctor, those sessions were for her care, and not care of his own. Gerald Ford was confirmed as vice president by the United States Congress on December 6, 1973, and Gerald Ford took the oath of office before a joint session of the United States Congress, placing his hand upon a bible which Betty Ford held. With her husband assuming the office of vice president, Ford became the second lady of the United States.
Before the end of December, Ford played a role in establishing the Republican Women's Federal Forum, partnering with Barbara Bush, whose husband George H. W. Bush was chairman of the Republican National Committee at the time. The organization sought to bring together political spouses and female government federal employees to discuss current party activates and ideas about legislation. Ford also, in a television interview with Barbara Walters, expressed her support for the United States Supreme Court's Roe v. Wade decision ruling abortion as constitutionally protected. Ford remarked, "I agree with the Supreme Court's ruling. I think it's time to bring abortion out of the backwoods and put it in the hospitals, where it belongs." Disregarding criticism to her stance, Ford would remark, "Maybe I shouldn't have said it, but I couldn't lie. That's the way I feel."
The media "broke" the story that Ford had a previous marriage and had been divorced, initially reporting it as a secret revelation. However, Ford simply responded by giving the explanation that it was not something that she had tried to hide, but rather, something that she had only neglected to share with the news media because none of them had broached the subject in their previous questions to her. This response proved effective in killing the speculation that she was covering-up her past and earned her some admiration in the media. At one point, Ford disclosed to the public that her husband had previously promised her that he would retire from the House of Representatives in 1976 in order to return to private legal practice and dedicate more time to his family. Ford became overwhelmed by the media attention she received and became somewhat reclusive for a period early into her time as second lady. However, by the spring of 1974, Ford was seen as embracing her position as second lady, becoming less reclusive and more active. Ford would, ultimately, for most of the nine months that she was second lady, be a high-profile public figure.
As she became a more active second lady, Ford adopted an objective of promoting the arts. In April 1974, she made her first official solo trip as second lady when she spent two-days visiting the states of Georgia and Tennessee to help in publicizing the "ARTRAIN", which was a traveling exhibit of art, visual displays, and performance pieces housed in six railway cars, and which was to travel through small towns across the southern United States. Ford was the most prominent national supporter of the project. Her candor on this trip received a positive reception by the news media. Among those that she met on the two-day trip was Georgia Governor Jimmy Carter and his wife Rosalynn. The Carters would, ultimately go on to be the Fords' successors as president and first lady after Jimmy Carter defeated President Ford in the 1976 United States presidential election. On May 31, 1973, Ford made her first major speech when she gave a commencement address to the graduates of the Westminster Choir College. This set a contrast with First Lady Pat Nixon, who routinely rejected invitations to give formal speeches. Ford was also observed to be upgrading her wardrobe, adding designer clothing. In addition to the arts, Ford also gave focus to projects helping the disabled during her time as second lady.
On March 12, 1974, the Fords hosted a state dinner for King Hussein of Jordan after president Nixon, with a week's notice, asked Vice President Ford to take over for him in hosting the already-scheduled state dinner. The dinner was held in the John Quincy Adam's Drawing Room, one of the Diplomatic Reception Rooms at the United States Department of State headquarters at the Harry S Truman Building.
In June 1974, Ford attended the funeral of Alberta Williams King, the assassinated mother of the late civil rights leader Martin Luther King Jr. Other Nixon administration official figures did not attend, continuing with other obligations. Ford was the only individual in attendance at the funeral not directly ingrained in the civil rights movement or black politics, with the exception of Georgia Governor Jimmy Carter. Ford's attendance at the funeral was, in actuality, a break from the administration. Ford had believed it to be of great importance for the administration to show an expression of direct concern pertaining to the assassination, while Nixon's staff disagreed with her. Ford also broke from the administration in giving her support to the prospect of federally-funded child daycare, which the Nixon administration opposed.
Ford had an extremely busy schedule by July 1974. Magazines such as Vogue and Ladies Home Journal were planning to publish spreads on Ford in upcoming issues. With her husband, as vice president, tasked with heavily campaigning on behalf of his party for the 1974 midterm elections, Ford occasionally hit the campaign trail herself. Ford had declared that she would be accompanying her husband at campaign functions, "when he wants me to." The Fords had planned to make a diplomatic trip to European nations after the midterm elections.
Both Betty and Gerald Ford refused to comment on speculation that President Nixon might be forced out of office due to the Watergate scandal. Ford did indirectly indicate her willingness to step into the role of first lady by affirming that she would make any sacrifices required for her husband to carry out his constitutional obligations, but also opined that it would be traumatic if the nation had to endure a president being forced from office. Ford also publicly expressed admiration and friendship toward First Lady Pat Nixon.
First Lady of the United States (1974–1977)
On August 9, 1974, after the resignation of Richard Nixon (who was facing the prospect of likely impeachment and removal from office), Gerald Ford ascended to the position of president of the United States and Betty Ford became the first lady of the United States. As was the case during Gerald Ford's vice presidential swearing-in, Betty Ford held the Bible upon which he placed his hand while taking his oath of office. In his remarks at his inauguration, Gerald Ford remarked, "I am indebted to no man and only one woman, my dear wife, Betty, as I begin this very difficult job."
Public image, influence, and candor
At the time her husband assumed the presidency, reporters speculated on what kind of first lady Ford would be, as they thought her predecessor, Pat Nixon, as noted by one reporter, to be the "most disciplined, composed first lady in history." Ford ultimately became a popular and impactful first lady. In the opinion of The New York Times and several presidential historians, "Mrs. Ford's impact on American culture may be far wider and more lasting than that of her husband, who served a mere 896 days, much of it spent trying to restore the dignity of the office of the president." She was regarded to be the most politically outspoken first lady since Eleanor Roosevelt. Ford regarded Roosevelt a role model. Active in social policy, Ford broke new ground as a politically active presidential spouse.
Repeatedly speaking out on women's issues, Ford was a leader in the changing status of women in American society. Ford surprised the media and the public by explicitly supporting a woman's right to an abortion, the Equal Rights Amendment (ERA), and grass roots activism. Ford took these stances despite recognizing that they created a political risk of conservative backlash against her husband. However, not everything Ford did as first lady broke tradition. Ford also enjoyed the traditional role as hostess of the White House and on a daily basis spent most of her energy on the family, health, and serving as a surrogate for her husband on the political campaign trail.
Steinhauer of The New York Times described Ford as "a product and symbol of the cultural and political times—doing the Bump dance along the corridors of the White House, donning a mood ring, chatting on her CB radio with the handle First Mama—a housewife who argued passionately for equal rights for women, a mother of four who mused about drugs, abortion and premarital sex aloud and without regret." Ford was open about the benefits of psychiatric treatment and spoke understandingly about marijuana use and premarital sex. The New York News Service wrote that Ford was, "constitutionally incapable of uttering 'no comment' or otherwise fudging an answer." As first lady, remarking on her honest candor and the sometimes-controversial remarks it resulted in, Ford declared, "I am not very good at making up stories." In another instance, she commented, "it's just impossible for me to lie and look someone in the eyes and talk to them. This is my problem." While President Ford never attempted to silence his wife, some of his senior staff resented her independent candor. Margaret Brown Klapthor later wrote of Ford's candor, "she has the self-confidence to express herself with humor and forthrightness whether she speaks to friends, to the press or to a multitude."
Ford filmed an interview with the television news program 60 Minutes which was broadcast on August 10, 1975. The broadcast of the interview saw strong interest from the public. After the interview aired, a number of Ford's remarks in this interview on hot-button issues generated particularly immense media attention. Due to conservative backlash from Ford's comments on premarital sex, marijuana use, and abortion in the 60 Minutes interview, President Ford initially quipped to her that her comments had lost him a large number of votes. However, polling would show that her comments were accepted by many Americans.
In 1975, when Time named the "American women" as its "Person of the Year", the magazine profiled Ford as one of eleven women selected to represent "American women". That same year, People named Ford one of the three most intriguing people in America. In 1977, the World Almanac included Ford in its ranking of the 25 most-influential American women. In January 1976, Ford made a cameo appearance on the popular television program The Mary Tyler Moore Show.
The Fords were among the more openly affectionate first couples in United States history. Neither was shy about their mutual love and equal respect, and they were known to have a strong personal and political partnership. This open affection was evident from the beginning of Gerald Ford's presidency. Ford was observed audibly telling her husband "I love you" following a kiss they shared right after he was sworn in as president. Later that day, President Ford was caught momentarily patting Betty's buttocks before the press gathered outside of their Virginia residence. Weeks later, when the Fords moved from their Virginia residence into the White House their king size bed was photographed being moved into the White House, which prompted Betty to quip that they had been outed for breaking the tradition of first couples keeping separate bedrooms in the White House. Early into her time in the White House, during a televised tour of the White House, Ford once again noted that she and her husband shared the same bed. In a 1975 interview with McCall's, Ford remarked that she was asked just about everything, except for how often she and the president had sex. "And if they'd asked me that I would have told them," she said, adding that her response would be, "as often as possible."
Ford was popular with the American public. Her overall approval rating was, at times, as high as 75%. Ford's popularity often was higher than her husband's. Ford said, during her husband's failed 1976 presidential campaign, "I would give my life to have Jerry have my poll numbers." This reflects a common trend of American first ladies often being more popular than the presidents to whom they are married.
Ford ranked as one of the top-10 most admired women in the results of Gallup's annual most admired man and woman poll every year from 1974 (the year her husband first became president) through 1991, with the exception of Gallup having failed to conduct such a poll in 1976 (the final full year of her husband's presidency). The poll gauges Americans' most admired men and women without providing respondents any pre-arranged list of names. In 1974, Ford placed second in the poll. She placed first in 1975. In 1977, the year her husband left office, she placed fourth. After her tenure as first lady ended, she would top the poll for a second time in 1978, the year she had established herself as an advocate for people with drug and alcohol dependence. Contrarily to her, while President Ford ranked in the top-10 positions of most admired men in multiple years, he never managed to top it.
In Good Housekeeping's annual readers' poll of most admired women, Ford placed second in 1974 and first in 1975. By late-1975, Harris found Ford to have established herself as one of America's most popular first ladies. In January 1976, the editors of the New York News Service wrote that Ford was, "one of the most charming and popular First Ladies ever to occupy the White House".
Ranking in Gallup's annual poll of "Most Admired Women"
|1976||no poll conducted||1982||8th||1988||5th|
|1979||5th (tied with Jaclyn Smith)||1985||7th||1991||10th|
|Segment polled||Polling group||Date||Approve||Disapprove||Sample size||Margin-of-error||Source|
|National poll||Roper Center||1976||71%||24%|||
|National poll||Roper Center||1975||50%||36%|||
Social policy and political activism
During her time as first lady, Ford was an outspoken advocate of women's rights and was a prominent force in the Women's Movement of the 1970s. Her active political role prompted Time to call her the country's "Fighting First Lady" and was the reason they profiled her, among several others, to represent the "American Women" as the magazine's 1975 Person of the Year. On September 4, 1974, weeks after becoming first lady, Ford conducted a press conference in the State Dining Room of the White House in which she remarked that she, "would like to be remembered in a very kind way; also as a constructive wife of a president."
Ford avidly supported the proposed Equal Rights Amendment. In her September 4, 1974 press conference, Ford declared her support for it. Ford lobbied state legislatures to ratify the amendment, and took on opponents of the amendment. Ford utilized phone calls, letter-writing, and telegrams as means of lobbying in support of the ERA.
Ford was also unapologetically pro-abortion rights. In a 1975 interview with the news program 60 Minutes, Ford called Roe v. Wade a "great, great decision". Ford's abortion position differed from the political platform of the Republican Party. For a long time, it was unclear whether Gerald Ford shared his wife's pro-abortion rights viewpoint. In December 1999, he told interviewer Larry King that he, too, was pro-abortion rights and had been criticized for that stance by conservative forces within the Republican Party.
Ford successfully lobbied her husband to, in 1975, sign an executive order to establish the National Commission on the Observance of International Women's Year. Ford also, unsuccessfully, lobbied her husband to appoint the first woman to the Supreme Court of the United States or as a running mate in the 1976 election. Ford took personal credit for the appointment of Carla Anderson Hills as secretary of Housing and Urban Development.
In May 1975, during a four-day trip, Ford met with former Prime Minister of the Republic of Vietnam Nguyễn Cao Kỳ to discuss Southeast Asia refugees. Afterwards, Ford stated she was impressed with the conduct of the refugees.
Ford's involvement in political issues received some conservative criticism. Phyllis Schlafly accused Ford of acting improperly by intervening in state affairs. Some women protested Ford's lobbying for the ERA by carrying placards outside of the White House reading "Betty Ford, Get Off the Phone". On June 30, 1976, Ford attended the opening of "Remember the Ladies", a Revolutionary War-era women's exhibit. She drew boos from demonstrators against the Equal Rights Amendment in stating, "This exhibit about neglected Americans should give us strength and courage to seek equal rights for women today."
Health and breast cancer awareness
Weeks after Ford became first lady, she underwent a mastectomy for breast cancer on September 28, 1974, after having been diagnosed with the disease. Ford decided to be open about her illness because "There had been so much cover-up during Watergate that we wanted to be sure there would be no cover-up in the Ford administration." Her openness about her cancer and treatment raised the visibility of a disease that Americans had previously been reluctant to talk about.
"When other women have this same operation, it doesn't make any headlines," she told Time. "But the fact that I was the wife of the President put it in headlines and brought before the public this particular experience I was going through. It made a lot of women realize that it could happen to them. I'm sure I've saved at least one person—maybe more."
Adding to heightened public awareness of breast cancer were reports that several weeks after Ford's cancer surgery, Happy Rockefeller, the wife of Vice President Nelson Rockefeller, also had a mastectomy. The spike in women self-examining after Ford went public with the diagnosis led to an increase in reported cases of breast cancer, a phenomenon known as the "Betty Ford blip".
According to Tasha N. Dubriwny, the massive media coverage of Ford's mastectomy was constrained by stereotypical gender roles, particularly the need for breast cancer patients to maintain their femininity. Betty Ford was portrayed as an ideal patient within a success narrative that presented the key sequences of her breast cancer diagnosis and treatment in a progressive, linear fashion that inspired optimism. Her coverage minimized the complexity of breast cancer as a disease and ignored the debates surrounding best treatment practices. It amounted to as aestheticization of breast cancer and her coverage became the major discursive model for looking at all breast cancer survivors.
After her mastectomy, Ford received chemotherapy treatments and saw regular checkups. White House Physician William M. Lukash claimed in a March 1975 statement that Ford was suffering no side effects from her chemotherapy.
In March 1975, Ford temporarily cut back her schedule after suffering a flareup of her chronic arthritis.
As First Lady, Ford was an advocate of the arts. She successfully lobbied her husband to award the Presidential Medal of Freedom to choreographer and dancer Martha Graham in 1976. She received an award from Parsons The New School for Design in recognition of her style.
Despite the brevity of her husband's presidency (roughly two and a half years), he hosted 33 state dinners, the fifth most state dinners of any United States president. The first of these came only a week into Ford's presidency, hosting King Hussein of Jordan on August 16, 1974. Once she became first lady, it fell to Ford to arrange this already-scheduled dinner. She found out of this upcoming dinner and her responsibility for planning it through a phone call she received within 24-hours after her husband's swearing-in as president. As previously mentioned, the Fords had hosted a state dinner for King Hussein months earlier, during Gerald Ford's vice presidency, on March 12, 1974, after president Nixon asked then-Vice President Ford to take over for him in hosting a planned dinner for the King. At the first state dinner that she arranged as first lady, Ford revived dancing as an activity of White House state dinners. The Nixons had previously removed dancing from the state dinners during Nixon's presidency. At the state dinners of the Ford presidency, the president and first lady always led off the dancing, and dancing often lasted beyond midnight.
The Fords opted to have eclectic array of guests at their state dinners, including notable celebrities from the entertainment industry. The Fords' children often also attended the dinners they hosted.
During their final year in the White House, the Fords hosted eleven state dinners. This large number of state dinners was, in part, due to great interest from foreign dignitaries in visiting the United States for a state dinner amid the United States bicentennial celebrations. Ford made the decision that year to erect a tent in the White House Rose Garden to host dinners outside. For state dinners held using this tent, the receptions, entertainment, and dancing portions of the evenings were still held inside of the White House.
Among the most notable state dinners the Fords hosted was a July 7, 1976 state dinner honoring Queen Elizabeth II and Prince Philip, the Duke of Edinburgh. This dinner was part of the American bicentennial celebrations, and was held in tent on the South Lawn of the White House.
Of the state dinners she planned, Ford said, "From the beginning, Jerry and I tried to make the White House a place where people could have fun and enjoy themselves. Most of all we wanted the state dinners to express the very best about America, particularly during the bicentennial year."
Dishes that Ford particularly liked serving at state dinners included wild rice, Columbia River salmon, soufflé, and flambé. The state dinners that Ford planned as first lady made a deliberate effort to showcase American ingredients. By late 1974, Ford had shifted to exclusively serving wine that was American-cultivated at state dinners. The November 12, 1974 state dinner for Austrian Chancellor Bruno Kreisky saw the first instance in which a wine from the Fords' home state of Michigan was served at a White House state dinner, with wine from the Tabor Hill Winery being served. It was not until 2016, during the presidency of Barack Obama, that a Michigan wine would again be served at a White House state dinner.
|Gallery of images|
Ford did not take any solo trips abroad as first lady. She is the most recent first lady not to have done so. Ford's failure to conduct a solo trip is not all that extraordinary, however. The first instance of a first lady conducting one had been Eleanor Roosevelt in 1942. Ford's recent predecessor Lady Bird Johnson was among other first ladies that did not conduct solo trips abroad.
During the Fords' 1976 trip to mainland China, when being shown an exhibition by a Chinese arts college dance group, Ford decided to join the dancers. Photos of this moment were published widely in the American press, resulting in Betty Ford somewhat upstaging President Ford in the press.
Ford supported numerous charities as first lady. Ford assisted in fundraising for the little-known Hospital for Sick Children in Washington, D.C., whose patients were predominantly African American. She also fundraised for No Greater Love, in appreciation of its work benefiting Children of Vietnam War MIA and POWs. She served as the honorary president of the National Lupus Foundation, regarding lupus as a disease which impacted women, yet received minimal public attention. Her philanthropic support additionally placed a specific focus on charities serving children with special needs.
Role in the 1976 presidential campaign
In November 1975, it was reported by the Associated Press that Ford's husband's advisors, who had previously worried her outspoken comments would hurt him in the 1976 presidential election, were now recognizing her popularity and desiring for her to have a greater role in the campaign. Ford ultimately played an important role in the 1976 election campaign. Ford made campaign appearances and delivered speeches across the United States.
During the campaign, many Ford supporters wore campaign buttons with phrases like "Betty's Husband for President in '76" and "Keep Betty in the White House". The use of Ford in such a manner to promote her husband's candidacy was not the work of the campaign itself, but rather, produced by supporters outside of the campaign organization. The campaigns of the previous three presidents that sought election to an additional term (Dwight D. Eisenhower, Lyndon B. Johnson, Richard Nixon) had needed to manufacture campaign publicity involving their first ladies (Mamie Eisenhower, Lady Bird Johnson, and Pat Nixon). In contrast, there was tremendous organic excitement for Betty Ford among supporters of the campaign.
Ford campaigned actively both during primary elections and the general election. A contrast was publicly drawn between Ford and Nancy Reagan, the wife of Ford's primary election challenger Ronald Reagan. Reagan had contrasting views on issues such as drug experimentation by teenagers and the Equal Rights Amendment (which she opposed passing). Many of Ford's views were aligned-with, or even more liberal than, Rosalynn Carter, the wife of Ford's Democratic general election opponent Jimmy Carter.
During the primaries, Ford recorded radio advertisements on behalf of the campaign that were broadcast in New Hampshire. She also traveled to Iowa before its caucus, and delivered a speech on behalf of the president (who had been unable to make his planned appearance) in which she labeled herself as being his political partner. The campaign made a deliberate effort, ahead of the 1976 Republican National Convention, of sending Ford to liberal and moderate-leaning states and not more conservative states in the western and southern United States.
Between Labor Day and election day, for the general election campaign, Ford conducted multi-stop speaking tours, during which she visited western states (including California, Colorado, Texas, and Utah) as well was northern midwest states including Illinois, Michigan, and Wisconsin.
The heavy campaigning placed a strain on Ford's health. During the general election, her busy campaign activity saw the reigniting of her pinched nerve. However, even after this, Ford continued with her planned campaign schedule.
After Gerald Ford's defeat by Jimmy Carter in the 1976 presidential election, she delivered her husband's concession speech because he had lost his voice while campaigning. The speech was delivered on the day after the election. This is the only time that a major United States presidential candidate's spouse has delivered their concession on their behalf.
After her husband's narrow defeat, there was some anecdotal speculation that Ford may have both have helped to alienate conservative Republicans from voting for her husband and at the same time helped attract him support from liberal and moderate Republicans, Democrats, and independents.
Campaign button in support of President Ford's 1976 presidential campaign with the phrase "Keep Betty in the White House"presidential campaign with the phrase "Keep Betty in the White House"
Betty and Gerald Ford onstage at the 1976 Republican National Convention
Ford reads her husband's 1976 presidential concession speech to the press.
Departure from the White House
During the period after the election, Ford postponed scheduled plans to give her slated successor, Rosalyn Carter, a tour of the White House. Unknown to Carter at the time, this was likely due to Ford's fragility caused by her prescription drug abuse. When Ford attempted to postpone the plans a second time, President-elect Carter called the White House and threatened to make a fuss in the news if the tour was not held as planned. Ford capitulated and gave a brief, but cordial, tour of the White House to Rosalyn Carter on November 22, 1976, coinciding with President-elect Carter's White House meeting with President Ford.
On January 19, 1977, her last full day as first lady, Betty Ford used her training as a Martha Graham dancer to jump up on the Cabinet Room table. White House photographer David Hume Kennerly took a photo of her on the table. Gerald Ford did not know about or see the photo until 1994. A Ford family friend said that President Ford "about fell off his chair" when he saw the photo for the first time. The photo was subsequently published and is regarded as an "iconic" photograph of Ford's time as First Lady. Kennerly has touted the image as both capturing Ford's personality and being a symbolic image showing the feminist first lady posing in what had been a space occupied predominantly by white men.
|Gallery of images|
Post–White House life and career
After leaving the White House in 1977, Ford continued to lead an active public life. In addition to founding the Betty Ford Center, she remained active in women's issues, taking on numerous speaking engagements and lending her name to charities for fundraising. Many of Ford's most significant contributions as an activist came following the Fords' departure from the White House.
In March 1977, Ford signed with NBC News to appear in two news specials within the following two years along with contributing to Today, and jointly signed with her husband to write their memoirs. In June 1977, Ford was a speaker at the Arthritis Association Convention. In September of that year, Ford traveled to Moscow for a television program taping and to serve as hostess for The Nutcracker. In November 1977, Ford appeared at the opening session of the National Women's Conference in Houston, Texas.
Recovery from alcoholism and prescription drug addiction
Ford had suffered from a dependency on prescription medication and from alcoholism prior even to her husband's presidency. Ford had, particularly, become addicted to prescription medication (opioid analgesics) that she had been originally prescribed in the early 1960s to treat a pinched nerve. Ford took doses of this medication in excess of her prescription. In her 1987 memoir she reflected on these addictions, writing, "I liked alcohol, it made me feel warm. And I loved pills. They took away my tension and my pain". The fact that Ford had, for years, been given tranquilizers to treat a pinched nerve in her neck, was public knowledge as far back as her time as second lady. During her time as first lady, there had even been some speculation about substance abuse by friends and members of the press who observed occasional slurred speech from Ford. After they left the White House, her addictions became more evident to her family and appeared life-threatening. On April 1, 1978, her family staged an intervention. In order to be at Betty Ford's intervention, President Ford had made last minute cancellations of numerous appearances he had been scheduled to make on the East Coast by citing "personal and family reasons". The intervention forced Betty Ford to acknowledge the negative impact that her addiction was having on her health and family relationships. She agreed, that day, to detox from her medicine. She also, ultimately agreed to attend rehab at the Naval Regional Medical Center in Long Beach, California. Ford succeeded in getting sober. Ford registered herself at the hospital on April 11, 1978.
As she had previously been with her breast cancer diagnosis and treatment, Ford was transparent with the public about her addictions and admittance to rehab. Ford's transparency was praised by experts in drug abuse treatment, who predicted that it would make a major and positive impact. The week she entered rehab, Ford disclosed her addiction to prescription medication. Days later, Ford also disclosed to the public that she had come to realize that she was additionally an alcoholic. She disclosed her alcoholism through a statement that a family spokesman read on her behalf at a press conference (at which Ford was not herself present) held outside of the hospital. In this statement, Ford disclosed, "I have found I am not only addicted to the medication I have been taking for my arthritis but also to alcohol". In this statement, she also praised the reputation of the hospital's addiction treatment program, and declared her pleasure to have the opportunity to attend the treatment. The statement also declared, "I expect this treatment and fellowship to be a solution for my problems. I embrace it, not only for me, but all the many others who are here to participate." The Washington Post reported that Ford's disclosure of alcoholism came as a surprise to a number of Ford's close friends, who had regarded her as merely a social drinker and were oblivious to her drinking problem.
Ford published her first memoir in 1978, The Times of My Life, in which she discussed her battle with addiction.
During a January 1984 address in Michigan to a crowd of individuals who were in the early stages of alcohol and drug dependency treatment, Ford declared that the six years since she began her treatment for alcohol and drug abuse, "have been the best years in my life from the standpoint of feeling healthier and feeling more comfortable with myself".
The Betty Ford Center
In 1982, after recovering from her own addictions, Ford established the Betty Ford Center (initially called the Betty Ford Clinic) in Rancho Mirage, California, for the treatment of chemical dependency, including treating the children of alcoholics. She partnered with her friend Ambassador Leonard Firestone to found it. She served as chair of the board of directors. She also co-authored with Chris Chase a book about her treatment, Betty: A Glad Awakening (1987). In 2003, Ford produced another book, Healing and Hope: Six Women from the Betty Ford Center Share Their Powerful Journeys of Addiction and Recovery. In 2005, Ford relinquished her chair of the center's board of directors to her daughter Susan. She had held the top post at the center since its founding.
Barbara Bush, a later first lady, opined that Ford, after discovering she was dependent on drugs, "transformed her pain into something great for the common good. Because she suffered, there will be more healing. Because of her grief, there will be more joy."
Ford continued to be an active leader and activist of the feminist movement after the Ford administration. She continued to strongly advocate and lobby politicians and state legislatures for passage of the ERA. In 1977, President Jimmy Carter appointed Ford to the second National Commission on the Observance of International Women's Year (the first had been appointed by President Ford). That same year, she joined First Ladies Lady Bird Johnson and Rosalynn Carter to open and participate in the National Women's Conference in Houston, Texas, where she endorsed measures in the convention's National Plan of Action, a report sent to the state legislatures, the U.S. Congress, and the President on how to improve the status of American women. Ford continued to be an outspoken supporter of equal pay for women, breast cancer awareness, and the ERA throughout her life. She was an active member of the Junior League.
Ford continued to advocate for the ratification of the ERA. In November 1977, Ford and First Lady Rosalynn Carter joined together to advocate for its ratification at the National Women's Conference in Houston. In 1978, the deadline for ratification of the ERA was extended from 1979 to 1982, resulting largely from a march of a hundred thousand people on Pennsylvania Avenue in Washington. The march was led by prominent feminist leaders, including Ford, Bella Abzug, Elizabeth Chittick, Betty Friedan and Gloria Steinem. In 1981, Eleanor Smeal, the National Organization for Women's president, announced Ford's appointment to be the co-chair, with Alan Alda, of the ERA Countdown Campaign. In November 1981, Ford stated that Governor of Illinois James R. Thompson had not done enough in support of the ERA as well as her disappointment with First Lady Nancy Reagan not being in favor of the measure, though also relayed her hopes to change the incumbent First Lady's mind in further encounters with her. As the deadline approached, Ford led marches, parades and rallies for the ERA with other feminists, including First Daughter Maureen Reagan and various Hollywood actors. Ford was credited with rejuvenating the ERA movement and inspiring more women to continue working for the ERA. She visited states, including Illinois, where ratification was believed to have the most realistic chance of passing. On October 12, 1981, Ford spoke in support of the ERA on a rally held at the National Mall. The amendment did not receive enough states' ratification. In 2004, Ford reaffirmed her pro-abortion rights stance and her support for the 1973 U.S. Supreme Court decision in Roe v. Wade, as well as her belief in and support for the ratification of the ERA.
Decades later, in his 2014 memoir, television producer Norman Lear revealed that in the late-1970s Ford had played a significant role in helping to persuade television executives to purchase the syndication rights to the series Maude, of which she was an avid viewer. He wrote that, at his request, Ford had attended the National Association of Television Program Executives convention and spoke to executives about her love of the series to help pique their interest in the series.
Ford tackled the stigmatized issue of HIV/AIDS during the HIV/AIDS crisis. Through the work she did at the Betty Ford Center, Ford recognized the link between drug abuse and AIDS. She involved herself in the Los Angeles AIDS Project. In 1985, Ford received the Los Angeles AIDS Projects "Commitment to Life Award". Her acceptance speech spoke hopefully of the prospect that attitudes towards HIV/AIDS would shift, being de-stigmatized as cancer and alcoholism had (in part due to her contribution). When she attended the 1992 Republican National Convention, Ford wore an AIDS ribbon pin.
Ford supported gay and lesbian causes, speaking against discrimination in the United States military. In 1993, Ford was quoted as speaking against existing bans on gays serving in the military, remarking,
Constitutionally all citizens have the right to serve their country as long as they abide by the rules and regulations of military service. There have been gays and lesbians serving our country for many years. There haven't been any more problems than there have been in situations like Tailhook with heterosexuals. I do not believe they should be asked to leave the military.
In 1985, Ford received the Award for Greatest Public Service Benefiting the Disadvantaged, an annual award given by the Jefferson Awards. That same year, Ford received the Golden Plate Award of the American Academy of Achievement. This was formally presented to her by President Ford, who was an Academy Awards Council member.
In the early 1990s, Ford voiced admiration for First Lady Hillary Clinton and praised her for taking an active role in policy within her husband's administration by leading the Clinton health care plan
In 1987, Ford was inducted into the Michigan Women's Hall of Fame. On November 18, 1991, she was awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom by President George H. W. Bush. In 1999, she and President Ford were jointly awarded Congressional Gold Medals. That same year, a Golden Palm Star on the Palm Springs Walk of Stars was dedicated to her and her husband. In 2000, the Lasker Foundation awarded Ford its annual Mary Woodard Lasker Public Service Award. On May 8, 2003, Ford received the Woodrow Wilson Award in Los Angeles for her public service, awarded by the Woodrow Wilson Center of the Smithsonian Institution.
During her and President Ford's later years together, they resided in Rancho Mirage and in Beaver Creek, Colorado. President Ford died, aged 93, of heart failure on December 26, 2006, at their Rancho Mirage home. Despite her advanced age and own frail physical condition, Ford traveled across the country and took part in the funeral events in California, Washington, D.C., and Michigan. Following her husband's death, Ford continued to live in Rancho Mirage. Poor health and increasing frailty due to operations in August 2006 and April 2007 for blood clots in her legs caused her to largely curtail her public life. Ill health prevented Ford from attending the funeral of former First Lady Lady Bird Johnson's in July 2007, and her daughter Susan Ford Bales instead represented her at the funeral service.
|Gallery of images|
Death and funeral
Funeral services were held in Palm Desert, California, on July 12, 2011, with more than 800 people in attendance, including former president George W. Bush, then-first lady Michelle Obama, then-U.S secretary of state Hillary Clinton, herself a former first lady, former first ladies Rosalynn Carter, who gave a eulogy, and Nancy Reagan.
On July 14, a second service was held at Grace Episcopal Church in Grand Rapids, with eulogies given by Lynne Cheney, former Ford Museum director Richard Norton Smith, and Ford's son Steven. In attendance were former president Bill Clinton, former vice president Dick Cheney and former first lady Barbara Bush. In her remarks, Mrs. Cheney noted that July 14 would have been Gerald Ford's 98th birthday. After the service, Betty Ford was buried next to her husband on the museum grounds.
According to John Robert Greene:
Only a part of Betty Ford's legacy will be that of her role as first lady. Throughout her post-Washington life, she established herself as one of the nation's first public advocates for women's self-examination, a prodigious fund-raiser for arthritis research, and, most important, a tireless campaigner for the rights and dignity of those afflicted with the disease of substance abuse. Her role as a public health advocate distinguishes her as one of the most influential women of the latter part of the twentieth century.
Since 1982 Siena College Research Institute has conducted occasional surveys asking historians to assess American first ladies according to a cumulative score on the independent criteria of their background, value to the country, intelligence, courage, accomplishments, integrity, leadership, being their own women, public image, and value to the president. Ford has consistently ranked among the top-nine most highly assessed first ladies in these surveys. In terms of cumulative assessment, Ford has been ranked:
- 6th-best of 42 in 1982
- 9th-best of 37 in 1993
- 8th-best of 38 in 2003
- 7th-best of 38 in 2008
- 6th-best of 39 in 2014
The 2008 Siena Research Institute survey ranked Ford the 5th-highest of the twenty 20th and 21st century First Ladies. The 2008 survey also ranked Ford the 5th-highest in their assessment of first ladies who were "their own women" as well as 5th-highest in courage. In both the 1993 and 2003 Siena Research Institute surveys, Ford was similarly ranked the 5th-highest in historians' assessment of first ladies' courage. In the 2014 Siena Research Institute survey, historians ranked Ford 3rd-highest among 20th and 21st century First Ladies in the greatness of post-White House service, 3rd-highest in advancement of women's issues, and 4th-highest in creating a lasting legacy. In the 2014 Siena Research Institute survey survey, Ford and her husband were ranked the 19th-highest out of 39 first couples in terms of being a "power couple".
In 2021, Zogby Analytics conducted a poll in which a sample of the American public was asked to assess the greatness of twelve First Ladies from Jacqueline Kennedy onwards. The American public ranked Ford as the eighth-greatest among these first ladies.
Ford's life is the focus of the 1987 ABC biographical television film The Betty Ford Story, which has a story adapted from her memoir The Times of My Life. Gena Rowlands won both an Emmy Award and a Golden Globe Award for her portrayal of Ford. Ford is also one of three former first ladies whose lives are the focus of the Emmy-nominated 2022 Showtime television series The First Lady, in which she is portrayed by Kristine Froseth and Michelle Pfeiffer.
Awards and honors
Other honors and awards include:
- 1975 National Woman's Party "Alice Paul Award"
- 1975 Philadelphia Association for Retarded Citizens "Humanitarian Award"
- 1975 National Art Association "Distinguished Woman of the Year Award"
- 1975 Anti-Defamation League Women's Division "Rita V. Tishman Human Relations Award"
- 1975 Florists' Transworld Delivery "Golden Rose Award"
- Order of the Pleiades (awarded in 1975 by Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi of Iran)
- 1976 Parsons Annual Critics Awards Show "Parsons Award" (an award given to individuals that, "not only advance the cause of American fashion, but in doing so serve as an inpiration for students who are about to assume professional and citizenship roles in American society.")
- 1978 Eleanor Roosevelt Humanities Award
- 1981 Friends of Hebrew University "Scopus Award"
- 1982 American Cancer Society "Hubert Humphrey Inspirational Award"
- 1983 Susan G. Komen Foundation "Komen Foundation Award"
- 1984 National Arthritis Foundation "Harding Award"
- 1985 Jefferson Awards for Public Service "Award for Greatest Public Service Benefiting the Disadvantaged"
- 1985 American Academy of Achievement "Golden Plate Award"
- 1985 AIDS Project Los Angeles "Commitment to Life Award"
- 1986 National Council on Alcoholism "Golden Key Award"
- Inducted into the Michigan Women's Hall of Fame in 1987
- 1987 International Center for the Disabled "Freedom of Human Spirit Award"
- 1988 College of Communication at the University of Texas "McGovern Distinguished Leadership Award"
- "Citation of Layman for Distinguished Service" awarded by the American Medical Association in 1979
- Presidential Medal of Freedom (awarded in 1991 by President George H. W. Bush)
- 1991 International Women's Forum "Hall of Fame Award"
- 1995 Samaritan Institute "National Samaritan Award"
- 1995 Columbia Hospital for Women "Breast Cancer Awareness Lifetime Achievement Award"
- 1995 Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse "Distinguished Service Award"
- 1996 Bob Hope Classic Ball awardee
- 1997 American Institute for Public Service "Jefferson Award"
- 1997 Michigan Women's Foundation "Women of Achievement & Courage" award
- 1997 Women's International Center "Living Legacy Award"
- 1998 Common Wealth Award of Distinguished Service
- 1998 Ronald McDonald House Charities "Award of Excellence"
- Congressional Gold Medal in 1999 (jointly awarded to Betty and Gerald Ford)
- Golden Palm Star on the Palm Springs Walk of Stars (jointly awarded to Betty and Gerald Ford in 1999)
- 1999 American Hospital Association "C. Everett Koop Health Award"
- 2000 Lasker Foundation Mary Woodard Lasker Public Service Award
- 2003 Smithsonian Institution Woodrow Wilson Center "Woodrow Wilson Award"
- National Women's Hall of Fame (inducted posthumously in 2013)
Things and places named for Ford
- Betty Ford Cancer Research Center at Cedars-Sinai Hospital in Los Angeles, California (named after Ford in 1978)
- Betty Ford Center for Comprehensive Breast Diagnosis at Columbia Hospital for Women in Washington, D.C. (named for Ford in 1980; hospital now defunct)
- Betty Ford Alpine Gardens in Vail, Colorado
- Susan G. Komen Foundation "Betty Ford Award" (formerly known as the "Women Foundation Award")
- Ford, Betty; Chase, Chris (1978). The Times of My Life. New York City, New York: Harper & Row. ISBN 978-0-06-011298-1.
- Ford, Betty; Chase, Chris (1987). Betty, a Glad Awakening. Garden City, New York: Doubleday. ISBN 978-0-385-23502-0.
- Ford, Betty; Betty Ford Center (2003). Healing and Hope: Six Women from the Betty Ford Center Share Their Powerful Journeys of Addiction and Recovery. New York City, New York: Putnam (Penguin Group). ISBN 978-0-399-15138-5.
- List of breast cancer patients according to occupation
- List of first ladies of the United States
- Second-wave feminism
- "Susan Ford - C-SPAN.org". www.c-span.org.
- "Wedding". Gerald R. Ford Presidential Library and Museum. Archived from the original on February 11, 2020. Retrieved February 11, 2020.
Gerald R. Ford, Jr., and Betty Bloomer Warren at their wedding rehearsal dinner..
- "First Lady Biography—Betty Ford". National First Ladies' Library. n.d. Archived from the original on May 9, 2012. Retrieved July 10, 2011.
- Ford, Betty; Chase, Chris (1978). The Times of My Life. p. 22.
- "Betty Ford". Biography.com. April 2, 2014. Retrieved May 15, 2022.
- "Betty Ford Dies at Age 93; A Look Back on the Former First Lady". Business 2 Community. Archived from the original on June 5, 2013.
- "Betty Ford". Newspapers.com. Des Moines Tribune. The New York Times. January 9, 1976. Retrieved May 15, 2022.
- "Betty Ford Biography". www.firstladies.org. National First Ladies' Library. Archived from the original on May 9, 2012. Retrieved May 10, 2022.
- Ford, Betty; Chase, Chris (1978). The Times of My Life. p. 21.
- Tucker, Neely (December 29, 2006). "Betty Ford, Again Putting On a Brave Face". The Washington Post. Retrieved July 16, 2011.
- Ford, Betty; Chase, Chris (1978). The Times of My Life. pp. 39, 41.
- "Gerald R. Ford Presidential Library and Museum". www.fordlibrarymuseum.gov. Gerald R. Ford Presidential Library & Museum. Retrieved May 15, 2022.
- Howard, Jane (December 8, 1974). "The 38th First Lady: not a robot at all". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved July 11, 2021.
- "Gerald R. Ford Timeline". geraldrfordfoundation.org. Gerald R. Ford Foundation. Retrieved May 15, 2022.
- Video documentary (May 16, 2009). Betty Ford—The Real Deal Archived May 20, 2012, at the Wayback Machine (requires Adobe Flash; 57 minutes). PBS NewsHour (via Public Broadcasting Service). Retrieved July 10, 2011.
- Nemy, Enid (July 9, 2011). "Betty Ford, Former First Lady, Dies at 93". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved July 11, 2021.
- "The Watergate Story". The Washington Post.
- Ashley, Jeffrey S. (2003). Betty Ford: A Symbol of Strength. Nova Publishers. p. 52. ISBN 978-1-59033-407-2.
- Fling, Sarah (November 5, 2019). "Betty Ford: Activist First Lady". www.whitehousehistory.org. White House Historical Association. Retrieved May 13, 2022.
- "Betty's life changed dramatically once she became..." fordlibrarymuseum.tumblr.com. Gerald R. Ford Presidential Library and Museum. Retrieved May 15, 2022.
- Marks, Dorothy (May 14, 1974). "Friends Asking: 'Is There A New Betty Ford?'". Newspapers.com. Rocky Mount Telegram. Women's New Service. Retrieved May 15, 2022.
- Kreitner, Richard (October 10, 2015). "October 10, 1973: Vice President Spiro Agnew Resigns". The Nation. Retrieved May 15, 2022.
- Piker, Mark (April 21, 2022). "How Betty Ford Made History Inside The White House and Beyond". Town & Country. Retrieved November 26, 2022.
- Radcliffe, Donnie (July 24, 1974). "Betty Ford: unaffected, but not a 'plain country girl'". Newspapers.com. The Rock Island Argus. Los Angeles Times-Washington Post. Retrieved May 15, 2022.
- Hickey, C. K. (February 16, 2019). "All the Presidents' Meals". Foreign Policy. Retrieved May 10, 2022.
- "Hussein Assured on U.S. Peace Efforts". The New York Times. March 13, 1974. Retrieved May 10, 2022.
- "March 13, 1974 – Vice President and King Hussein of Jordan" (PDF). www.fordlibrarymuseum.gov. Gerald R. Ford Presidential Library and Museum. Retrieved May 15, 2022.
- *Anthony, Carl Sferrazza (1991). First Ladies: The Saga of the Presidents' Wives and Their Power; 1961–1990 (Volume II). New York City: William Morrow and Company. p. 220. ISBN 978-0-688-10562-4.
- "Betty Ford's Legacy Wide and Lasting", National Journal, July 9, 2011
- Nichols, John (July 9, 2011). "Betty Ford: Feminist, Social Liberal, Republican". The Nation. Retrieved May 15, 2022.
- "First Lady job tailored by the lady". The Orlando Sentinel. The Associated Press. January 31, 1993. Retrieved November 28, 2022 – via Newspapers.com.
- "Women: A Fighting First Lady". Time. March 3, 1975. Archived from the original on January 22, 2011. Retrieved July 15, 2011.
- Tobin, Leesa E. (1990). "Betty Ford as First Lady: A Woman for Women". Presidential Studies Quarterly. 20 (4): 761–767. ISSN 0360-4918. JSTOR 20700159.
- Steinhauer, Jennifer (December 31, 2006). ""Back in View, a First Lady With Her Own Legacy", The New York Times. Retrieved July 16, 2011.
- "Elizabeth "Betty" Ford". Miller Center of Public Affairs. n.d. Archived from the original on January 18, 2012. Retrieved July 11, 2011.
- "Betty's popularity rises because of her big mouth". Newspapers.com. The Dispatch (Moline, Illinois). New York News Service. January 6, 1976. Retrieved May 18, 2022.
- Barnhardt, Mike (August 5, 2021). "First ladies: Betty Ford receives high marks". Davie County Enterprise Record. Retrieved August 10, 2023.
- "Presidents Advisors Urging Bigger Role for Betty Ford". Newspapers.com. Manitowoc Herald-Times. The Associated Press. November 11, 1975. Retrieved May 15, 2022.
- "Digitized from Box 39 of the Sheila Weidenfeld Files at the Gerald R. Ford Presidential Library" (PDF). www.fordlibrarymuseum.gov. Ford Library Museum. Retrieved May 15, 2022.
- "Person of the Year: A Photo History – TIME". Time. December 16, 2006. Retrieved May 13, 2022.
- Tucker, Neely (December 29, 2006). "Betty Ford, again putting on a brave face". NBC News. Retrieved May 13, 2022.
- "The Mary Tyler Moore Show: Watch Betty Ford's Memorable Cameo". tvseriesfinale.com. July 11, 2011. Retrieved August 27, 2022.
- "Then and Now: First Ladies | Roper Center for Public Opinion Research". ropercenter.cornell.edu. Roper Center (Cornell University). Retrieved May 15, 2022.
- Gallup, George Jr. (January 2, 1985). "Thatcher America's 'most admired woman'". Newspapers.com. The Tampa Tribune. Los Angeles Times Syndicate. Retrieved May 13, 2022.
- "Most Admired Men and Women: 1948–1998". news.gallup.com. Gallup. December 13, 1999. Retrieved May 13, 2022.
- Multiple sources:
- Gallup, George (January 23, 1980). "Gallup/Rosalynn Carter Most Admired". Newspapers.com. Newsday (Suffolk Edition) (Melville, New York). Retrieved May 13, 2022.
- Gallup, George (December 24, 1981). "Nancy Reagan, Thatcher honored". Newspapers.com. Merced Sun-Star. Retrieved May 13, 2022.
- "Nancy Reagan No. 1". Newspapers.com. Johnson City Press. January 2, 1982. Retrieved May 13, 2022.
- "Top of the Line". Miami Herald. January 13, 1983. Archived from the original on February 27, 2022. Retrieved February 28, 2022 – via Newspapers.com.
- Gallup, George (January 12, 1984). "12 Jan 1984, 9 - The News and Observer at Newspapers.com". Newspapers.com. The News and Observer (Raleigh, North Carolina). Los Angeles Times Syndicate. Retrieved May 13, 2022.
- Gallup, George Jr. (January 2, 1985). "Thatcher America's 'most admired woman'". Newspapers.com. The Tampa Tribune. Los Angeles Times syndacate. Retrieved January 14, 2023.
- "Most admired in '85". Newspapers.com. The Lompoc Record. February 2, 1986.
- Gallup, George Jr.; Castelli, Jim (March 21, 1987). "Religious leaders make gains in most-admired lists". Newspapers.com. Los Angeles Times-Washington Post News Service.
- Gallup, George Jr.; Gallup, Alec (January 19, 1988). "First lady Nancy Reagan is most-admired woman". Newspapers.com. The Palm Beach Post. Retrieved May 13, 2022.
- "Bush, Gorbachev Are 1–2 In Popularity Poll". Newspapers.com. St. Louis Post-Dispatch. The Gallup Organization. December 27, 1989. Retrieved May 13, 2022.
- "Americans' Heroes". Newspapers.com. The Palm Beach Post. January 4, 1991. Retrieved May 13, 2022.
- McAney, Leslie (January 5, 1992). "President, Barbara Bush Top 'Most Admired' Lists". Newspapers.com. The Daily Oklahoman. Retrieved May 13, 2022.
- "Most Admired Man and Woman". news.gallup.com. Gallup. 2020. Retrieved May 13, 2022.
- Gallup, George (December 31, 1974). "Meir Is Most Admired Woman". The Clarion-Ledger. Archived from the original on February 27, 2022. Retrieved February 28, 2022 – via Newspapers.com.
- Gallup, George (January 1, 1978). "1 Jan 1978, 21 - Tampa Bay Times at Newspapers.com". Newspapers.com. St. Petersburg Times. Retrieved May 13, 2022.
- Gallup, George (December 22, 1978). "Carter First On 'Most Admired Man' List". Montgomery Advertiser. Archived from the original on February 27, 2022. Retrieved February 28, 2022 – via Newspapers.com.
- "Kissinger Again 'Most Admired Man'". The Tampa Tribune. December 29, 1974. Archived from the original on February 27, 2022. Retrieved February 28, 2022 – via Newspapers.com.
- Gallup, George (January 4, 1981). "Pope Tops List of Most Admired". The Anniston Star. Archived from the original on February 27, 2022. Retrieved February 28, 2022 – via Newspapers.com.
- "Reagan Replaces Pope as Most Admired Man". Rapid City Journal. January 3, 1982. Archived from the original on February 27, 2022. Retrieved February 28, 2022 – via Newspapers.com.
- "Golda Meir Named As 'Most Admired'; Betty Ford Second". The New York Times. January 2, 1975. Retrieved May 13, 2022.
- Transcript (December 30, 2006). "Special Encore Presentation—Interview with Gerald Ford". Larry King Live. CNN. Retrieved July 11, 2011.
- Hunter, Marjorie (May 25, 1975). "Betty Ford 'in Tip‐Top Shape' After Grueling Four‐Day Trip". The New York Times.
- Hunter, Marjorie (May 22, 1975). "FIRST LADY VISITS WITH KY ON COAST". The New York Times.
- Klemesrud, Judy (June 30, 1976). "Mrs. Ford Helps 'Remember the Ladies' of Revolutionary Era". The New York Times.
- "A Leading Lady". Cancertodaymag.org. Archived from the original on July 21, 2021. Retrieved July 21, 2021.
- Gibbs, Nancy (July 8, 2011). "Betty Ford, 1918–2011". Time. Retrieved July 16, 2011.
- Staff (November 4, 1974). "Breast Cancer: Fear and Facts". Time. Retrieved July 11, 2011.
- Tasha N. Dubriwny, "Constructing breast cancer in the news: Betty Ford and the evolution of the breast cancer patient." Journal of Communication Inquiry 33.2 (2009): 104–125.
- "Arthritis Condition Forces Mrs. Ford To Curtail Activity". The New York Times. March 9, 1975. Retrieved August 10, 2023.
- Colacello, Bob (May 11, 2010). "The White House's Dinner Theater". Vanity Fair. Retrieved May 10, 2022.
- Jackson, Harold (July 10, 2011). "Betty Ford obituary". The Guardian. Retrieved May 10, 2022.
- Gutgold, Nichola; Hobgood, Linda (January 1, 2004). "A Certain Comfort: Betty Ford as First Lady". Inventing a Voice: The Rhetoric of American First Ladies of the Twentieth Century: 325–340. Retrieved September 22, 2022.
- "Notable State Dinners at the White House". www.whitehousehistory.org. White House Historical Association. Retrieved May 10, 2022.
- Silver, Alexandra (January 19, 2011). "Top 10 Memorable State-Dinner Moments – TIME". Time. Retrieved May 10, 2022.
- Jaime, Fuller (February 11, 2014). "That time FDR served hot dogs to the king, and three other strange state dinner facts". Washington Post. Retrieved May 11, 2022.
- "Factbox: Notable first ladies and their travels". Reuters. April 12, 2010. Retrieved May 16, 2022.
- Brower, Kate Andersen (April 6, 2016). "When first ladies meet: An awkward post-election White House tradition". Washington Post. Retrieved January 19, 2023.
- Times, Marjorie Hunter Special to The New York (November 23, 1976). "Mrs. Carter Looks Over School, Then Goes on White House Tour". The New York Times. Retrieved January 19, 2023.
- "Betty Ford: Gilded Cage, Meet Free Spirit". July 12, 2011. Retrieved March 21, 2019.
- "Dancing on the table". Gerald R. Ford Library. Retrieved December 31, 2018.
- "LOOK: Proof Betty Ford Was A Total Badass". HuffPost. October 16, 2013. Retrieved May 13, 2022.
- Booth, William (June 2008). "Betty Ford's Tabled Resolution". www.smithsonianmag.com. Smithsonian Magazine. Retrieved August 27, 2022.
- First Women: The Grace and Power of America's Modern First Ladies by Kate Andersen Brower
- "The story behind an iconic Betty Ford photo". CBS News. August 9, 2020. Retrieved August 27, 2022.
- Kennerly, David Hume (August 27, 2022). "The First Lady". David Hume Kennerly. Retrieved October 8, 2022.
- "After Funeral Service, Betty Ford Buried Next to Husband". NBC News. July 14, 2011. Retrieved July 16, 2011.
- Brown, Les (March 12, 1977). "NBC News Signs Betty Ford to Pact For Two Specials". The New York Times.
- Mitgang, Herbert (March 9, 1977). "FORD AND WIFE SIGN PACT FOR MEMOIRS". The New York Times.
- "Ford Calls B1 Halt 'Very Risky Gamble'". Sarasota Herald-Tribune. July 1, 1977.
- "Betty Ford in Moscow". The New York Times. September 25, 1977.
- Klemesrud, Judy (November 20, 1977). "Equal Rights Plan and Abortion Are Opposed by 15,000 at Rally". The New York Times.
- 1977 National Women's Conference: A Question of Choices, retrieved March 11, 2021
- Gibbs, Nancy (July 8, 2011). "Betty Ford, 1918–2011". Time. Retrieved September 20, 2017.
- MacPherson, Myra; Radcliffe, Donnie (April 22, 1978). "Betty Ford Says That She Is Addicted to Alcohol". Washington Post. Retrieved May 13, 2022.
- Radcliffe, Donnie (April 24, 1983). "Betty Ford, After the Battle". Washington Post. Retrieved August 10, 2023.
- "Former first lady Betty Ford says the six years..." UPI. January 27, 1984.
- "Addiction Treatment – Betty Ford Center – Rancho Mirage, CA". bettyfordcenter.org.
- "Betty Ford targets children of addicted families". USA Today. January 16, 2002.
- "Betty Ford Biography". The Gerald Ford Foundation. Archived from the original on October 13, 2014. Retrieved October 27, 2012.
- Bush, Barbara (2015). Barbara Bush: A Memoir. Scribner. p. 180. ISBN 978-1-5011-1778-7.
- "Sisters of '77: The Conference". Independent Lens. Public Broadcasting Service. n.d. Retrieved July 16, 2011.
- Barth-Werb, Zoë (July 12, 2011). "Former First Lady and Women's Rights Advocate: Betty Ford". Blog of Rights. ACLU. Archived from the original on July 15, 2011. Retrieved July 16, 2011.
- "Betty Ford, The Junior League of Grand Rapids". www.ajli.org.
- "Betty Ford and the Equal Rights Amendment: The ERA Countdown Campaign". Gerald R. Ford Presidential Library and Museum. Retrieved January 19, 2023.
- Smeal, Eleanor (opinion essay) (July 9, 2011). "Betty Ford, Champion of Women's Rights". CNN. Archived from the original on July 16, 2011. Retrieved July 16, 2011.
- "Former first lady Betty Ford says she is disappointed..." UPI. November 18, 1981.
- Carabillo, Toni; Meuli, Judith; Csida, June Bundy (1993). Feminist Chronicles 1953–1993. Los Angeles, California: Women's Graphics (via Feminist Majority Foundation). ISBN 978-0-9634912-0-6. Retrieved July 16, 2011.
- Stanley, Tim (opinion essay) (July 9, 2011). "Betty Ford's death marks the passing of a lost generation of moderate Republican women". The Daily Telegraph. UK. Archived from the original on July 11, 2011. Retrieved January 6, 2012.
- "Betty Ford". Greater Grand Rapids Women's History Council. Retrieved August 10, 2023.
- Lear, Norman (October 2, 2014). "How Betty Ford Helped Sell 'Maude' Into Syndication". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved June 18, 2023.
- Anthony, Carl Sferrazza (April 8, 1993). "First Lady of Candor". Washington Post.
- "National – Jefferson Awards". Jefferson Awards. Archived from the original on November 24, 2010. Retrieved August 5, 2013.
- "Golden Plate Awardees of the American Academy of Achievement". www.achievement.org. American Academy of Achievement.
- "Betty Ford Returns Home". The New York Times. December 2, 1987. Retrieved September 20, 2017.
- "Betty Ford". www.ggrwhc.org. Greater Grand Rapids Women's History Council. Retrieved January 19, 2023.
- "Heroes of the Presidential Medal of Freedom" (PDF). National First Ladies' Library. November 16, 2010. p. 3. Archived from the original (PDF file; 806 KB) on February 14, 2011. Retrieved July 16, 2011.
Betty Ford (1918 – ) ... Presidential Medal of Freedom received November 18, 1991
- "Fords receive congressional gold medal – October 27, 1999". CNN. October 27, 1999. Retrieved May 13, 2022.
- "Palm Springs Walk of Stars: By Date Dedicated" (PDF). palmspringswalkofstars.com. Archived from the original (PDF) on December 8, 2012.
- Hofschneider, Mark. "Awareness, education, and treatment for substance abuse". Lasker Foundation. Retrieved January 20, 2023.
- "Ex-First Lady, Advocate for Substance Abuse Treatment Betty Ford Dies". CNN. July 9, 2011. Retrieved July 16, 2011.
- "Betty Ford Memorial Schedule". Detroit Free Press. July 12, 2011. Archived from the original on July 18, 2011. Retrieved July 16, 2011.
- Gray, Kathleen; Christoff, Chris (July 14, 2011). "Betty Ford Funeral: Family, Friends Eulogize Former First Lady". Detroit Free Press. Retrieved July 15, 2011.
- "Betty Ford Sculpture Unveiled at Ford Museum". Detroit Free Press. Retrieved August 8, 2019.
- John Robert Greene. "Ford. Betty" (2013).
- "Eleanor Roosevelt Retains Top Spot as America's Best First Lady Michelle Obama Enters Study as 5th, Hillary Clinton Drops to 6th Clinton Seen First Lady Most as Presidential Material; Laura Bush, Pat Nixon, Mamie Eisenhower, Bess Truman Could Have Done More in Office Eleanor & FDR Top Power Couple; Mary Drags Lincolns Down in the Ratings" (PDF). scri.siena.edu. Siena Research Institute. February 15, 2014. Retrieved May 16, 2022.
- "Ranking America's First Ladies Eleanor Roosevelt Still #1 Abigail Adams Regains 2nd Place Hillary moves from 5th to 4th; Jackie Kennedy from 4th to 3rd Mary Todd Lincoln Remains in 36th" (PDF). Siena Research Institute. December 18, 2008. Retrieved May 16, 2022.
- "Ranking America's First Ladies Eleanor Roosevelt Still #1 Abigail Adams Regains 2nd Place Hillary moves from 2nd to 5th; Jackie Kennedy from 7th to 4th Mary Todd Lincoln Up From Usual Last Place" (PDF). Siena Research Institute. September 29, 2003. Retrieved May 16, 2022.
- "Overall-Results.pdf" (PDF). Siena Research Institute. 1993. Retrieved May 16, 2022.
- "2014 Power Couple Score" (PDF). scri.siena.edu/. Siena Research Institute/C-SPAN Study of the First Ladies of the United States. Retrieved October 9, 2022.
- "The Zogby Poll®: Greatness of the past 12 First Ladies". zogbyanalytics.com. October 14, 2021. Retrieved November 26, 2022.
- "The Betty Ford Story". IMDB. March 2, 1987. Retrieved May 13, 2022.
- Shaw, Gabbi (December 30, 2020). "Here's how 20 real-life first ladies compare to the actors who have played them". Business Insider. Retrieved May 13, 2022.
- Pearl, Diana (February 21, 2017). "White House Couples That Have Been Portrayed on Screen". People. Retrieved May 15, 2022.
- Kang, Inkoo (April 14, 2022). "Review | 'The First Lady' turns three compelling women into Emmy bait". Washington Post. Retrieved May 13, 2022.
- "Gerald R. Ford Presidential Library and Museum • The National Women's Party honored Betty Ford as..." Gerald R. Ford Presidential Library and Museum. Retrieved January 19, 2023.
- "The original documents are located in Box 29, folder "Awards Presented to Betty Ford" of the Betty Ford White House Papers, 1973–1977 at the Gerald R. Ford Presidential Library" (PDF). www.fordlibrarymuseum.gov. Gerald R. Ford Presidential Library & Museum. Retrieved January 20, 2023.
- "Ford Museum - Artifact Collections - Head of State Gifts Artifacts - medal from the Arab Republic of Egypt". Gerald R. Ford Presidential Library and Museum. www.fordlibrarymuseum.gov. Retrieved January 22, 2023.
- "The original documents are located in Box 1, folder "1976/03/29 – Parsons Award, New York City" of the Frances K. Pullen Papers at the Gerald R. Ford Presidential Library" (PDF). www.fordlibrarymuseum.gov. Gerald R. Ford Ford Presidential Library and Museum. Retrieved January 20, 2023.
- "Betty Ford – Awards and Honors Received". www.fordlibrarymuseum.gov. Gerald R. Ford Presidential Library and Museum. Retrieved January 20, 2023.
- "Ford, Betty". National Women's Hall of Fame. Retrieved July 21, 2021.
- Natanson, Hannah (August 18, 2019). "'We lost something special': The women's hospital in D.C. that became a Trader Joe's". Washington Post. Retrieved January 21, 2023.
- Ashley, Jeffrey S. "The Social and Political Influence of Betty Ford: Betty Bloomer Blossoms" White House Studies 1.1 (2001): 101–109.
- Borrelli, Maryanne. "Competing conceptions of the first ladyship: Public responses to Betty Ford's 60 Minutes interview." Presidential Studies Quarterly 31.3 (2001): 397–414.
- Brower, Kate Andersen. First women: The grace and power of America's modern First Ladies (HarperCollins, 2017).
- Dubriwny, Tasha N. "Constructing breast cancer in the news: Betty Ford and the evolution of the breast cancer patient." Journal of Communication Inquiry 33.2 (2009): 104–125.
- Gould, Lewis L. "Modern first ladies in historical perspective." Presidential Studies Quarterly 15.3 (1985): 532–540.
- Greene, John Robert. "Ford, Betty" American National Biography (2013). (subscription required)
- Greene, John Robert. Betty Ford: Candor and Courage in the White House (2004).
- Gregory Knight, Myra. "Issues of Openness and Privacy: Press and Public Response to Betty Ford's Breast Cancer." American Journalism 17.1 (2000): 53–71.
- Hummer, Jill Abraham. "First Ladies and the Cultural Everywoman Ideal: Gender Performance and Representation." White House Studies 9.4 (2009) pp. 403–422. Compares Lady Bird Johnson, Betty Ford, and Barbara Bush.
- McClellan, Michelle L. "Fame through Shame: Women Alcoholics, Celebrity, and Disclosure." Journal of Historical Biography 13 (2013): 93–122, includes Margaret Mann, Lillian Roth, and Betty Ford.
- Tobin, Leesa E. "Betty Ford as first lady: A woman for women." Presidential Studies Quarterly 20.4 (1990): 761–767.
- Troy, Gil. Mr. and Mrs. President: From the Trumans to the Clintons (2d rev. ed., 2000).
- Warters, T. Alissa. "Ford and Ford" in Scott Kaufman, ed. A Companion to Gerald R. Ford and Jimmy Carter (2015) pp 181–95.
- Watson, Robert P. The Presidents' Wives: The Office of the First Lady in US Politics (2nd ed. 2014).